ITX 1000 Final + Video

Summary of ITX 1000 module,  Information Technology

All these units/topics deeply link with one another in our lives, allowing everything/computers/software to run smoothly,  where in the modern world we heavily depending on. As we heavily depend on these technology if something goes wrong, it can cause a lot of damages, in terms of cost-money, reputation/trust-business,  and even lives-hospital.  although we cannot 100% elimate chance of error/fault but we can lower the chance of it from happening, for example we use Standards to help us do so. Standards are included in almost everything we use today, e.g. VR headsets, Arduino boards, Smart sensors, and DSP chips. These came from experts’s knowledge to help set the standards, using SFIA to communicate will allow people around the world connect and understand each other in the digital industry using this common language / platform. Producing high quality, safe products / services for consumers, allowing us to achieve more in less time and better quality of life as technology advance.

SFIA Implementation ITX1000

Unit Future Systems

Unit Accessibility

Unit Arduino

Unit Embedded Systems and Physical Computing

Unit Media and Marketing

Unit Media Literacy

Unit Recommender Systems

Unit Smart Environments

Unit Standards

Unit Virtual Environments

Advertisements

Media and marketing

Media: Communication channels through which news, entertainment, education, data, or promotional messages are disseminated. Media includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax, and internet.

Marketing: Communication between the company and the consumer. Marketing is the adaptation of the commercial activities and use of institutions by the organizations with a purpose to induce behavioral change on a short-term or permanent basis.

Media marketing involves the use of media medium such as newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax, and internet. Nowadays social media plays a major part in our lifes, increase website traffic or attention through social media sites usually by focusing on efforts to create content that attracts attention and encourages readers to share it across their social networks, where it’s called electronic word of mouth (eWoM) – consumers share via the Internet. (Kietzmann and Canhoto, 2013)

Just under half the world’s population is currently on the Internet. Roughly 75% of those people are on social media.

Social networking sites like Facebook, twitter, YouTube, act as e-word of mouth. Social networking sites allow followers/subscribers to “retweet” or “share” comments made by others about a product / service being promoted.

Social networking websites are based on building virtual communities, that allow consumers to express their needs, wants and values, online. Social media marketing then connects these consumers and audiences to businesses that share the same needs, wants and values. Social networking sites also include information about what products and services prospective clients might be interested in.(European Retail Research, 2009)However, companies and businesses will always be bias towards their own products/services. Consumer wants unbiased review/opinion on what they want before they buy, to make sure they are paying for what they expected. Social media sites like YouTube where people share their experience with the product whether it is accurate to the company claim to be. This also allow small business, starting up business to spread awareness of their product in a non-expensive way compare to traditional way of advertising such as TV ads by getting the product review/promote by high traffic channels.

With the invention of social media, the marketer no longer has to focus solely on the basic demographics and psychographics given from television and magazines, but now they can see what consumers like, how they engage online, and what their needs and wants are, through purchase history, wish list, similar products and even personal details. (The Ethics of Social Media Marketing, 2014)Personal sensitive details have been issues on social media, like geo tag, email address, IP address, etc. Where criminals can use that information to their advantage and gain from people. Although companies and government are working to improve privacy, online safety but still a lot of problems exists.

Ref :

European Retail Research. (2009). Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag.

 The Ethics of Social Media Marketing. (2014). Gutierrez, Mateo

Kietzmann, J. and Canhoto, A. (2013). Bittersweet! Understanding and Managing Electronic Word of Mouth. Journal of Public Affairs, 13(2), pp.146-159.

Recommender Systems

 

Recommender Systems : Software that find / match the interests and preferences of individual consumer’s, based on past searches, wish list, similar search to other costumers, products in same category, etc.

They have the potential to support and improve the quality of the decisions consumers make while searching for and selecting products online.

Recommender systems typically produce a list of recommendations in one of two ways:

 

Collaborative: approaches building a model from a user’s past behaviour, items previously purchased or selected, items as well as similar decisions made by other users.

  • This method is based on collecting and analysing a large amount of information on users’ behaviours
  • Activities or preferences and predicting what users will like based on their similarity to other users.
  • It does not rely on machine analysable content and therefore it is capable of accurately recommending complex items, without knowing the content of product

 

Content-based filtering: approaches utilize a series of discrete characteristics of an item in order to recommend additional items with similar properties.

  • This method is based on a description of the item and a profile of the user’s preference
  • Keywords are used to describe the items and a user profile is built to indicate the type of item this user likes
  • Algorithms try to recommend items that are similar to those that a user liked in the past searches, views

 

 

Hybrid recommender systems: combining collaborative filtering and content-based filtering

Make recommendations by comparing the purchase/watching and searching habits of similar users (using collaborative method) well as by offering videos/products that share characteristics with items that a user has rated highly (using content-based method).

(Dataconomy, 2015)

 

 

 

Ref :

Dataconomy. (2015). An Introduction to Recommendation Engines – Dataconomy. [online] Available at: http://dataconomy.com/an-introduction-to-recommendation-engines/.

Smart environment

Smart environment: ideas of a physical world interwoven with invisible sensors, actuators, displays, and computational elements, embedded seamlessly in the everyday objects of our lives, and connected through a continuous network. The smartness of this environment is a product of interaction of different devices and computing systems. have the capability to self-organize, to provide services and manipulate/publish complex data.(Igi-global.com, 2016)

Intelligent to recognize a situation where it can help the users

Sensible to recognize when it is allowed to offer help the users

Deliver help according to the needs and preferences of those which is

helping

Achieve its goals without demanding from the user/s technical knowledge

Preserve privacy of the user/s.

Prioritize safety of the user/s at all times.

Operate without forcing changes on the look and feel of the

environment or on the normal routines of the environment inhabitants.

 

Applications:

  • NFC Payment : Payment processing based in location or activity duration for public transport, gyms, theme parks, etc.
  • Supply Chain Control : Monitoring of storage conditions along the supply chain and product tracking for traceability purposes
  • Item Location : Search of individual items in big surfaces like warehouses or harbors.
  • Temperature Monitoring : Control of temperature inside industrial and medical fridges with sensitive merchandise.
  • Temperature Monitoring : Control of temperature inside industrial and medical fridges with sensitive merchandise.
  • Security – Perimeter Access Control : Access control to restricted areas and detection of people in non-authorized areas.
  • Remote Control Appliances : Switching on and off remotely appliances to avoid accidents and save energy.
  • Patients Surveillance : Monitoring of conditions of patients inside hospitals and in old people’s home.
  • Etc.(Libelium.com, 2016)

 

Sensors:

  • Temperature
  • Light
  • Pressure
  • Sound
  • Cameras
  • Moisture
  • Etc.

 

 

 

 

Igi-global.com. (2016). What is Smart Environment | IGI Global. [online] Available at: http://www.igi-global.com/dictionary/smart-environment/27178 .

Libelium.com. (2016). Top 50 Internet of Things Applications – Ranking | Libelium. [online] Available at: http://www.libelium.com/top_50_iot_sensor_applications_ranking/ .

 

Media literacy

 

Media = means of mass communication sending information or expressing ideas through the internet, newspaper, magazines, television, etc.,​

Literacy = the ability to read and write

Media literacy is an expansion of traditional literacy, ability to read access, analyze, evaluate, and create media, has become an essential skill in the modern days.

Media all have a strong influence on how we see the world, an influence that often begins at a very younger age nowadays. To be engaged with the modern world, media consumers need to develop skills of media literacy.

Media literacy skills are included in the educational standards around the world starting from kindergarten in MEDCs, but not LEDCs.

Today’s information and entertainment technologies communicate to us through a powerful combination of words, images, and sounds. We need to develop a wider set of literacy skills helping us to both comprehend the messages we receive and effectively utilize these tools to design and distribute our own messages. Being literate in a media age requires critical thinking skills that empower us as we make decisions, whether in the classroom, the living room, the workplace, the boardroom, or the voting booth. (National Association for Media Literacy Education, 2010)

Media literacy represents a necessary, inevitable, and realistic response to the complex, ever fast pace changing electronic environment that surround us. Develop expertise with the increasingly sophisticated information and entertainment media that address us, affecting the way we think, feel, and behave.

Media literacy also helps people to manage content and communications, and protect themselves and their families from the potential risks associated with using these services.

National Association for Media Literacy Education. (2010). Media Literacy Defined. [online] Available at: http://namle.net/publications/media-literacy-definitions/.

Virtual Environment

Virtual world replicates an environment that simulates a physical presence in places in the real world or an imagined world, allowing the user to interact with that world. Virtual realities artificially create sensory experience, which can include sight, touch, hearing, and smell.

Many virtual worlds are designed as multi user environments, allowing multiple users to meet and interact.

Most up-to-date virtual realities are displayed either on a computer screen or with an HD VR special stereoscopic displays, and some simulations include additional sensory information and focus on real sound through speakers or headphones targeted towards VR users.noqqb

 

Virtual reality also acts as a problem solving device in that it enables us to explore various options as a means of finding an answer to a problem.

For example, an engineering company will use virtual reality to produce a prototype which is then tested and the results fed back to the design team. The advantage of this is that it enables the designers to make alterations to their design but at far less time and cost. This is a preferred option to building a physical prototype which is expensive to build and make changes to: especially if it undergoes several alterations as part of the design process.

The aim is to move beyond standard forms of interaction such as the keyboard and mouse which most people work with on a daily basis. This is seen as an unnatural way of working which forces people to adapt to the demands of the technology rather than the other way around. However a virtual environment does the opposite. It allows someone to fully immerse themselves in a highly visual world which they explore by means of their senses. This natural form of interaction within this world often results in new forms of communication and understanding. (Virtual Reality, 2015)

Applications:

Education

Education is another area which has adopted virtual reality for teaching and learning situations. The advantage of this is that it enables large groups of students to interact with each other as well as within a three dimensional environment.

It is able to present complex data in an accessible way to students which is both fun and easy to learn and these students can interact with the objects in that environment in order to discover more about them.

As in real life theory based concept can be very difficult to explain and understand, virtual reality can help. For example, astronomy students can learn about the solar system and how it works by physical engagement with the objects within. They can move planets, see around stars and track the progress of a comet. This also enables them to see how abstract concepts work in a three dimensional environment which makes them easier to understand and retain.

 

Training

The usage of VR in a training it allow education/training organisation to conduct training in a virtual environment where they can improve their skills without the consequence of failing the operation, which can result in huge cost, injuries or even death.

VR plays an important role in combat training for the military. It allows the recruits to train under a controlled environment where they are to respond to different types of combat situations. Without actually taking the risks involved.  VR vs old ways of training, tradition ways of training requires a lot more resource to conduct such as physical space, equipment’s etc, whereas VR can reduce amount of resource require for training therefore reduced cost.

VR is also used in flight simulation for the Air Force where people are trained to be pilots. The simulator would sit on top of a hydraulic lift system that reacts to the user inputs and events. When the pilot steer the aircraft, the module would turn and tilt accordingly to provide haptic feedback.

 

Video games

The use of graphics, sound and input technology in video games can be incorporated into VR. Several Virtual Reality head mounted displays

Several companies are working on a new generation of VR headsets: Oculus Rift is a head-mounted display for gaming purposes developed by Oculus VR and a lot more other similar products.

The Beginning Project is a project of IBM in Japan, and unfortunately, IBM has revealed they have no plans to make it a complete game. The VR experience was conceived as a showcase of their SoftLayer cloud technology, and its cognitive systems.

https://developer.ibm.com/dwblog/sword-art-online-vrmmo/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGw7H-YlGd8

 

Architecture / Construction

Virtual reality can be extremely useful in the construction industry, which is often known as having a very high amount of inefficiency and low profit margins. Using a virtual environment, an organization can not only render the resulting structure in 3D but also experience them as they would in the real world. It helps reduce a lot of waste and errors.

An interactive VR model can reduce time wasted and resources constructing  a physical model in order to demonstrate or illustrate a design concept to target / potential clients. After the building is constructed, it allows developers to create a VR model of a space that allows potential buyers or renters to view the space in VR, even if real-life situations  make a physical visiting  not possible such as distance issues.

A lot more other applications

Ref :

Virtual Reality. (2015). Virtual Reality Concepts – Virtual Reality. [online] Available at: https://www.vrs.org.uk/virtual-reality/concepts.html .

Embedded Systems

An embedded system is some combination of computer hardware and software, either fixed in capability or programmable, that is specifically designed for a particular function.

Embedded systems are commonly found in consumer, cooking, industrial, automotive, medical, commercial and military applications.

Embedded systems serve a single purpose and utilise a microcontroller or DSP chip to carry out instructions – Often they are hidden in devices where it might not be apparent that any computing is taking place. Microcontrollers are programmed and where the programming may need to be flexible, the code may reside on a removable chip or memory card. Every microcontroller has its own instruction set.

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Modern embedded systems are often based on microcontrollers but ordinary microprocessors are also common, especially in more-complex systems. In either case, the processor/s used may be types ranging from general purpose to those specialized in certain class of computations, or even custom designed for the application at hand. A common standard class of dedicated processors is the digital signal processor (DSP).(Wikipedia, 2016)

Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance. Some embedded systems are mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale.

Embedded systems are not always standalone devices. Many embedded systems consist of small parts within a larger device that serves a more general purpose.

The program instructions written for embedded systems are referred to as firmware, and are stored in read-only memory or Flash memory chips. They run with limited computer hardware resources: little memory, small or non-existent keyboard or screen. (Barr, Massa and Barr, 2006)

Barr, M., Massa, A. and Barr, M. (2006). Programming embedded systems. Sebastopol, Calif.: O’Reilly.

Wikipedia. (2016). Embedded system. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embedded_system.

 

Standards

A standard is an agreed way of doing something. It could be about making a product, managing a process, delivering a service or supplying materials. Standards cover a huge range of activities undertaken by organizations and used by their customers.

Standards are the distilled knowledge of people with expertise in their subject matter and who know the needs of the organizations they represent – people such as manufacturers, sellers, buyers, customers, trade associations, users or regulators.

Standards are knowledge. They are powerful tools that can help drive innovation and increase productivity. They can make organizations more successful and people’s everyday lives easier, safer and healthier.

Standards cover a wide range of subjects from construction to nanotechnology, from energy management to health and safety, from cricket balls to goalposts. They can be very specific, such as to a particular type of product, or general such as management practices.

The point of a standard is to provide a reliable basis for people to share the same expectations about a product or service. This helps to: facilitate trade, provide a framework for achieving economies, efficiencies and interoperability and enhance consumer protection and confidence. (Bsigroup.com, 2016)

Type of standards organizations:

International standards organizations

Regional standards organizations

National standards organizations

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Standards development process

Every standards organisation’s development process might be slightly different from one to another, according to ISO one of the biggest standards organisations here are the key principles.

  1. Respond to a need in the market

ISO does not decide when to develop a new standard, but responds to a request from industry or other stakeholders such as consumer groups. Typically, an industry sector or group communicates the need for a standard to its national member who then contacts ISO.

  1. Standards are based on global expert opinion

ISO standards are developed by groups of experts from all over the world, that are part of larger groups called technical committees. These experts negotiate all aspects of the standard, including its scope, key definitions and content.

  1. Standards are developed through a multi-stakeholder process

The technical committees are made up of experts from the relevant industry, but also from consumer associations, academia, NGOs and government. Developing standards is a consensus-based approach and comments from all stakeholders are taken into account.

Developing standards costs, a lot of money, time, and resources, virtually all standards are distributed on a commercial basis rather than being provided for free, but that’s not true in every case.

Some standards are managed by non-profit organizations involving both public and private sectors working together to publish the standards under an open license at no charge and requiring no registration.

Businesses and organization might use these standards:

Quality management standard to help them work more efficiently and reduce product failures

Environmental management standard to help reduce environmental impacts, reduce waste and be more sustainable

Health and safety standard to help reduce accidents in the workplace

IT security standard to help keep sensitive information secure

Using standards can offer a set of powerful business and marketing tools for organizations of all sizes. You can use them to fine-tune your performance and manage the risks you face while operating in more efficient and sustainable ways; they’ll allow you to demonstrate the quality of what you do to your customers; and they help you to see how to embed best practice into your organization.(Bsigroup.com, 2016)

Bsigroup.com. (2016). Standards, Training, Testing, Assessment and Certification | BSI Group. [online] Available at: http://www.bsigroup.com/en-GB/.

 

 

 

 

Accessibility

The impact of disability is radically changed on the Web because the Web removes barriers to communication and interaction that many people face in the physical world. However, when websites, web technologies, or web tools are badly designed, they can create barriers that exclude people from using the Web. (W3.org, 2016)

Human – computer interactions, it is common to consider that there are at least three types of human subsystems involved.

A perceptual system, receiving sensory messages from the computer.

A motor system, controlling the actions that the user performs to provide input to the computer.

A cognitive system, connecting the other two systems, by integrating the sensory input received to determine appropriate user actions.

Graphic user interfaces in most modern computing systems, and in the majority of World Wide Web sites, the demands placed on the visual channel of the user’s perceptual system have been raised beyond the capabilities of a significant portion of potential Web users

It is essential that the Web be accessible in order to provide equal access and equal opportunity to people with diverse abilities. Indeed, the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities recognizes access to information and communications technologies, including the Web, as a basic human right. (W3.org, 2016)

Accessibility supports social inclusion for people with disabilities as well as others, such as elderly people, people in rural areas, and people in LEDCs.

There is also a strong business case for accessibility. Accessibility overlaps with other best practices such as mobile web design, device independence, multi-modal interaction, usability, design for older users, and search engine optimization. Studies show that accessible websites have better search results, reduced maintenance costs, and increased audience reach, among other benefits, gives an incentive for businesses to developing a Web Accessibility Business Case for organizations. (W3.org, 2016)

Hearing impairment: an individual satisfies the definition of hearing disabled when hearing loss is about 30 dB for a single frequency.

Visual impairments: a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

Physical impairments: a limitation on a person’s physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina.

Cognitive and Learning Impairments: a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner.

 

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For example:

Transcripts for Podcasts

Just as images aren’t available to people who can’t see, audio files aren’t available to people who can’t hear. Providing a text transcript makes the audio information accessible to people who are deaf or hard of hearing, as well as to search engines and other technologies that can’t hear.

It’s easy and relatively inexpensive for website developers to provide transcripts for podcasts and audio files. There are also transcription services that create text transcripts in HTML format.

 

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Some people cannot use a mouse, including many older users with limited fine motor control. An accessible website does not rely on the mouse; it provides all functionality via a keyboard. Then people with disabilities can use assistive technologies that mimic the keyboard, such as speech input.

Ref :

W3.org. (2016). Accessibility – W3C. [online] Available at: https://www.w3.org/standards/webdesign/accessibility.

 

SFIA

SFIA = Skills Framework for the Information Age

It describes skills required by professionals in roles involving information and communications technology.

The Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA) is a bridging tool, between Higher Education and the industry, which aims to enable students to have a better understanding of the employers’/business needs and to identify their personal strengths and career aspirations to the opportunities available.(Sfia-online.org, 2016)

SFIA is a common language / platform for skills in the digital industry. SFIA allows individuals, employees, organisations and businesses to communicate and define skills, abilities and expertise in a more efficient and consistent way.

These skills have been defined by IT professionals, employers and are incorporated into the job descriptions or role profiles used by a number of organisations including UK government. The skills are mapped across seven standard responsibility levels. Each level has a full generic definition and a short tag that summarises the essence of the level.

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With a common language in the industry it avoids a lot of problems, mistakes and more importantly costs to businesses in both financial and time waste form from miscommunication with different ‘languages’. It allows businesses clearly describe what exact skill set they are looking for from the employees, making recruitment process much efficient/time saving. Also SFIA helps information systems related businesses and organk8itnizations create guidelines and development plans, where both they and their employees to stay on track and focus.

Individuals use SFIA identify their skills and experience, help them set their goals and plan their professional development journey. Searching for higher-education courses, qualifications, professional memberships, and training courses is much easier with SFIA, it helps individuals and their managers to take the right actions to support the development they need. SFIA can help in the creation of Job/Position Descriptions and in advertising vacancies, and nk8jnhelps individuals to identify opportunities which match their skills and experience.

Organisations use SFIA for overall resource management. It helps provide a baseline of the capability and capacity of the organisation. Can be further sort into smaller areas of organisation, specific departments, teams, professional communities or individuals. SFIA describes the skills and levels of competency required to operate effectively, allowing origination make the best possible decision to allocate recourses and workload to their employees, ensuring that individuals can do their jobs properly.

During recruitment process employers use SFIA to produce an accurate job description, what skills and experience are required. It helps move away from an over-reliance on certificates and qualifications that often only confirm a theoretical base understanding of the relevant areas and towards specifying competency based on having the right skills and an appropriate level of experience and responsibility. Move away from certificates and qualifications may also help prevent incidences where fake certificates are involved reduce business risk. SFIA based job profiles and descriptions reduce business risk, increasing the chances of recruiting and developing the best available individuals with mix of skills, at the right level for the job. This is good for both organisation and the individual, it reduces the risk/cost when employees think the job is not what they thought it would be like or the organisation discovers they haven’t got the right set of skills to do the job effectively/properly.(Sfia-online.org, 2016)

Education organisations, universities, colleges and training course/lesson providers use SFIA to set the courses/lessons they offer, to ensure the most appropriate courses and certifications are selected for individuals, providing the knowledge they need for information system related jobs that they are interested in or demanded by the industry, so they can apply it to help develop the skills they require at the right level.

Professional bodies and membership organisations use SFIA to set their membership levels, certifications, professional development and mentoring programmers. SFIA is used to identify suitable mentors, supporting knowledge and experience sharing and coaching activities.

Conference and event organisers can identify the target audience by using SFIA levels of skills and levels, individuals can select the sessions which best match their development needs.(Sfia-online.org, 2016)

 

Sfia-online.org. (2016). SFIA. [online] Available at: http://www.sfia-online.org/en .